Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity
Review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks.
14.11.2011 |Journal of Applied Toxicology
This toxicology update reviews research over the past four years since publication in 2004 of the first measurement of intact esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast cancer tissues, and the suggestion that their presence in the human body might originate from topical application of bodycare cosmetics.
The presence of intact paraben esters in human body tissues has now been confirmed by independent measurements in human urine, and the ability of parabens to penetrate human skin intact without breakdown by esterases and to be absorbed systemically has been demonstrated through studies not only in vitro but also in vivo using healthy human subjects.
Using a wide variety of assay systems in vitro and in vivo, the oestrogen agonist properties of parabens together with their common metabolite (p-hydroxybenzoic acid) have been extensively documented, and, in addition, the parabens have now also been shown to possess androgen antagonist activity, to act as inhibitors of sulfotransferase enzymes and to possess genotoxic activity.
With the continued use of parabens in the majority of bodycare cosmetics, there is a need to carry out detailed evaluation of the potential for parabens, together with other oestrogenic and genotoxic co-formulants of bodycare cosmetics, to increase female breast cancer incidence, to interfere with male reproductive functions and to influence development of malignant melanoma which has also recently been shown to be influenced by oestrogenic stimulation.
More detailed information about the review can be found here.
To learn more about endocrine disrupting chemicals and their regulation in the EU, please read SIN List 2.0 targets endocrine disrupting chemicals for priority action in the EU.
Menstrual Hygiene Day 2018
Intersecting Menstrual Hygiene Management and the Sustainable Development Goals - an overview by WECF
AfricaDay in Amsterdam: Raising Awareness on Eco-Activism
Saturday April 14th 2018, Women Engage for a Common Future held its first workshop at the annual AfrikaDag in Amsterdam. With this year’s theme being “New Activism”, members of the organization took it upon themselves to raise awareness on eco-activism
Eco-Activism: What it is and Why it is Relevant
In light of this year’s theme “New Activism”, Women and Environment Network WECF, Women Engage for a Common Future, will organize a workshop on eco-activism during Africaday in Amsterdam. What is eco-activism and what are its challenges?
13.04.2018 | Audrey Van Schoote
WECF at the second SAICM International meeting in Stockholm, IP2
NGOs active for a future international chemicals and waste framework, aiming high level of protection for human health and environment
Hazardous chemicals: replacing it is not the solution.
Corporations and industrials are permitted to switch out one EDC for another that possesses the same hazardous properties.