Please check out the new WECF website on!

Stay here to browse our website archive (2004-2019).

WECF Deutschland

WECF France

WECF Nederland




Urine Diverting Toilets in Climates with Cold Winters

Technical considerations and the reuse of nutrients with a focus on legal and hygienic aspects.

28.08.2007 |Margriet Samwel

Literature or reports about urine diversion systems focus often on regions with warm climates. Therefore WECF commissioned the Swedish Institute Verna to carry out a study about urine diverting toilets in climates with cold winters and to describe the impact of cold winters on urine diversion systems and to answer several questions.

For examplle, does the recently WHO published “Guidelines for the safe use of excreta and greywater in agriculture” take long cold winters into consideration enough?

What are the  technical considerations of urine diverting toilets in cold climates? How to reuse the nutrients and what are the legal considerations of the reuse of human excreta in the EU?

This study with several examples of urine diverting systems was carried out with the input of many international well-know scientists.

Urine Diverting Toilets in Climates with Cold Winters